Menegazzia terebrata (Hoffm.) Massal.


Red list categories: Norway: V+, Sweden: R , Finland: V , EU: +

By The threatened macrolichen project, - updated 11.08.1996.
[Map] Sources for map data: All relevant herbaria and literature
Abbreviations, map symbols and standard references
Norwegian distribution: Menegazzia terebrata is known from 88 sites in the lowlands of South Norway, with one disjunct locality in southernmost Nordland, North Norway - Counties:: He-Bu, Te, VA-SF, No. - Vegetation regions: nemoral to middle boreal, and lowland belt of coastal section. - Altitude: From about sea-level to 560 m

World distribution: Menegazzia terebrata is a Northern Hemisphere species of a primarily temperate Southern Hemisphere genus, distributed in Europe, North and Central America, China, Russia, and Japan (Purvis 1992c). The species is rare in oceanic parts of Europe and is known from southern parts of Scandinavia to Portugal, including western parts of the British Isles, the Azores, Macaronesia, and the Alps (Purvis 1992c, Nimis 1993). The species is scattered in south and central Sweden (Ingelög et al. 1987), and is known from 10 localities in southern Finland (Rassi et al. 1992)

Ecology: Results. Substrates were indicated for 76 localities. Recorded substrates were trunks of deciduous trees (49), more or less moss-covered boulders or rocks (43), and rarely coniferous trees (2). Recorded substrate trees included Alnus glutinosa (25), Betula spp. (10), Quercus spp. (4), Populus tremula (3), Sorbus aucuparia (3), Alnus incana (2), Calluna vulgaris (1), Fraxinus excelsior (1), Ilex aquifolium (1), Picea abies (1), and Pinus sylvestris (1). Habitat was recorded for 66 localities, including swampy Alnus glutinosa forests (20), Picea forests (14), Betula forests (11), Pinus forests (9), various types of deciduous forests (7), Quercus forests (5), forested screes (5), Alnus incana forests (3), a Populus stand (1), unspecified coniferous forest (1), and grazed woodland (1). Twenty-five localities were situated near rivers, streams and waterfalls. Two localities were in maritime habitats. The species has once been collected in a very species-rich coastal spruce forest (835; the northernmost locality in Nordland), with Pannaria ahlneri. Noteworthy lichens in Norwegian localities include Bryoria bicolor (Op), B. nadvornikiana (He, Op), B. cf. tenuis (Op), Cavernularia hultenii (SF), Cetrelia olivetorum (He, Op, VA, Ho, SF), Evernia divaricata (Op), E. mesomorpha (Op), Flavoparmelia caperata (VA, Ho), Heterodermia speciosa (Op), Hypogymnia vittata (He), Hypotrachyna laevigata (VA, Ro), H. revoluta (Ro, Ho), H. sinuosa (Ho), Normandina pulchella (Ro), Pannaria ahlneri (No), P. conoplea (He, Ro), P. ignobilis (No), Parmelia fraudans (He), Parmotrema chinense (VA, Ro), Physconia detersa (Op), Ramalina dilacerata (Op), R. thrausta (Op), Sphaerophorus melanocarpus (VA), Sticta fuliginosa (Ro, Ho, SF), S. limbata (Ro), Usnea fragilescens agg. (VA), and U. longissima (Op). Discussion. In general, the species is saxicolous in inland areas, and corticolous on acid bark of deciduous trees in coastal areas. Bark pH of trunks with M. terebrata ranged from 4.0 to 4.5 (Y. Gauslaa, unpublished). Forested habitats are humid, with ample light and usually stocked with old trees. The species may also grow on fallen trunks of deciduous trees. Norwegian populations are likely to be situated within fire-free refugia. In one dark and humid forest, the lichen was observed on crown branches, indicating demand for considerable light. The species is probably easily overgrown by mosses in shady forests as has been observed over a period for 14 years in locality 2237. Menegazzia terebrata shows a wide ecological amplitude, but is associated with rare and threatened lichens in all parts of its Norwegian distribution area. Østhagen (1976) pointed out that M. terebrata demands a more shaded and humid microclimate than Cetrelia olivetorum. However, as the two species are often found together, they have at least partially overlapping ecological niches. Menegazzia terebrata seems to have a wider ecological amplitude in Norway than in Sweden, where it is either confined to Alnus glutinosa or to moss covered rocks (Degelius 1933, Hasselrot 1945, Ingelög et al. 1987), or Finland, where it is exclusively saxicolous, occurring in localities near lakes (Kuusinen et al. 1993). British populations have been referred to the extremely hygrophilous alliance 'Parmelion laeviagatae' or the constantly wet 'Lobarion' communities on deciduous trees; rarely they are found on moss covered rocks (James et al. 1977, Rose 1988, Purvis 1992c). Suitable habitats in the British Isles have an annual rainfall of 1200-1300 mm and c. 180 days with rain; some receive frequent on-shore sea mists (Seaward & Hitch 1982). This contrasts some of the Norwegian populations in the continental part of Gudbrandsdalen, with an annual average precipitation of only 400-500 mm. In central Europe, Menegazzia terebrata is a species of old, montane Fagus-Abies forests where it has been referred to the 'Lobarion' alliance (Wirth 1976, Rose 1988, Nimis 1993)

Threats: Results. Recorded threats were logging (35), plantation of coniferous forest (19), road construction (6), overgrowth (5), abrasion (4), agricultural expansion (2), collection (2), development of hydroelectric power (1), and pollution (1). Discussion. The most severe threat against the species appears to be forestry. In western Norway there are nearby plantations of conifers in the majority of the visited localities, especially those in Alnus glutinosa swamps. Forestry is also the main threat in Sweden (Aronsson et al. 1995) and Finland (Rassi & Väisänen 1987)

Status: Thirty-six old localities were investigated; the species was found in 23; regarded as extinct in 5; and of uncertain status in 8. Thirty-one new localities were discovered during the project. Three localities are protected within nature reserves: 824, 834, and 2237. One locality (2047) was exceptionally rich, with M. terebrata growing on 50-60 trunks of Alnus glutinosa in a swamp forest

Specimens in other herbaria, litterature, etc.

  • BUSKERUD, SIGDAL, between state road 287 and Urdåsen, UTM: NM 230 696, alt.: 170-180 m, on a rocky wall, 1982, Tønsberg T. 6977 (TRH)
  • HORDALAND, BERGEN, Store Milde, S of lakelet Mørkevatn, UTM: KM 93 86, alt.: 20, on Alnus glutinosa, 1984, Tønsberg T. 8785 (BG)
  • HORDALAND, EIDFJORD, Øvre Eidfjord, Sæbø, UTM: LN 975 000, alt.: 60-80 m, on mossy rock, 1985, Tønsberg T. & Botnen A. TT9344 (BG)
  • HORDALAND, ETNE, E of Åkrafjorden, N of Kyrping, ca. 0.2 km SW of Grønavikdjuvet ravine, UTM: LM 393 295, alt.: 160 m, , 1994, Tønsberg T. 19652 (BG)
  • HORDALAND, FUSA, E of Kilen, 0,5 km E of Tombre, along the brook, UTM: LM 27 77-78, alt.: 40-50 m, on Alnus glutinosa, 1987, Tønsberg T. 10027 (BG)
  • HORDALAND, FUSA, 1,5 km Ø for Kilen, UTM: LM 27 77-78, alt.: 30 m, på Alnus glutinosa, gammel løvskog i bekkekløft, 1987, Holien H. 2964 (TRH)
  • HORDALAND, FUSA, S of Fusa, the W-facing slope E of Fagerheim, S of the brook, UTM: LM 121 764, alt.: 130 m, , 1993, Tønsberg T. 19027 (BG)
  • HORDALAND, GRANVIN, Kollanestveiten, UTM: LN 74-75 13, alt.:, På en erradisk steinblokk, 1906, Havaas J.J. (BG)
  • HORDALAND, GRANVIN, Kollanestveiten, UTM: LN 74-75 13, alt.:, På en erradisk steinblokk, 1906, Havaas J.J. (DUKE)
  • HORDALAND, LINDÅS, W of Helltveit, UTM: LN 05 27, alt.: 50 m, on Alnus glutinosa, , Tønsberg T. & Øvstedal D.O. TT5056 (BG)
  • HORDALAND, LINDÅS, at Storavatnet, UTM: KN 974 264, alt.: 40 m, on Alnus glutinosa, 1976, Balle O. & Øvstedal D.O. (BG)
  • HORDALAND, LINDÅS, Helltveit, UTM: LN 05 27, alt.:, , 1977, Øvstedal D.O. (BG)
  • HORDALAND, LINDÅS, Helltveit, UTM: LN 058 275, alt.: 30-40 m, på Alnus glutinosa, gammel løvskog, 1987, Holien H. 2974 (TRH)
  • HORDALAND, OS, mellan Tyssdal och Gåssland, UTM: LM 04-05 80-85, alt.:, på Alnus glutinosa, 1968, Hakelier N. (BG)
  • HORDALAND, OS, between Storom and Lepsøy, S of the road, the swamp E of hill Vassåsen, UTM: LM 009 746, alt.: 10-20 m, , 1994, Tønsberg T. 19731 (BG)
  • HORDALAND, OS, Storomsvågen, near the creek at the bottom of the cove, UTM: LM 008 750, alt.: 1-10 m, , 1994, Tønsberg T. 19750 (BG)
  • HORDALAND, OSTERØY, along the brook S of Holevatnet, UTM: LN 07 19, alt.: 30 m, , 1993, Tønsberg T. 19829 (BG)
  • HORDALAND, STORD, ved Sagenes på Stord, UTM: KM 97 32, alt.:, , 1910, Havaas J.J. (BG)
  • HORDALAND, STORD, E of Hysstad, UTM: LM 05 33, alt.: -5, on Ilex, 1979, Tønsberg T. 4257 (TRH)
  • HORDALAND, STORD, Hysstad-Mjelkeviki (NE for Leirvik), UTM: LM 05 33, alt.: -10, on Alnus glutinosa, 1980, Tønsberg T. 5030 (BG)
  • HORDALAND, TYSNES, Tysnesøy, E for Drange, UTM: LM 03 53, alt.: 100 m, , 1974, Tønsberg T. 1301c (TRH)
  • HORDALAND, TYSNES, Tysnesøy, E for Drange, UTM: LM 041 530, alt.: 80 m, on Alnus glutinosa, 1979, Tønsberg T. 4233 (TRH)
  • HORDALAND, ULLENSVANG, Utne, W of Tingviken, UTM: LN 685 016, alt.: 40 m, , 1993, Tønsberg T. 19173 (BG)
  • NORDLAND, BINDAL, Terråk, sluttningen upp mot Terråkfjeld, UTM: UN 76-78 18-20, alt.:, på gran i granskog, 1939, Ahlner S. (TRH)
  • NORDLAND, BINDAL, Terråk, sluttningen upp mot Terråkfjeld, UTM: UN 76-78 18-20, alt.:, på gran i granskog, 1939, Ahlner S. (UPS)
  • OPPLAND, NORD-AURDAL, Fagernes, udde i Strondafjord 1,5 km SE om Samhället, UTM: NN 125-133 604-610, alt.: 350-400 m, stenblock i barrskog, 1937, Ahlner S. (UPS)
  • OPPLAND, RINGEBU, , UTM: , alt.:, , , Liebmann J. (UPS)
  • OPPLAND, RINGEBU, Stulsbroen, UTM: , alt.:, , 1908, Lynge B. (UPS)
  • OPPLAND, RINGEBU, ved Stulsbro, UTM: , alt.:, på stene, 1908, Havaas J.J. (BG)
  • OPPLAND, RINGEBU, Gudbrandsdalen, prope Stulsbro, UTM: , alt.:, Ad saxa, 1908, Havaas J.J. (DUKE)
  • OPPLAND, RINGEBU, Gudbrandsdalen, prope Stulsbro, UTM: , alt.:, , 1908, Havaas J.J. (DUKE)
  • OPPLAND, RINGEBU, Gudbrandsdalen, prope Stulsbro, UTM: , alt.:, , 1908, Havaas J.J. (DUKE)
  • OPPLAND, RINGEBU, S om Stulsbroen, W om Våla, UTM: NP 625 253, alt.:, glänta i skog av gran och gråal, på en stenblock, 1937, Ahlner S. (UPS)
  • OPPLAND, SEL, Sjoa, N om gårderna, E om landsvägen, UTM: NP 291-293 390-395, alt.: 300-400 m, block i skog av gråal, 1937, Ahlner S. (UPS)
  • OPPLAND, VÅGÅ, Lalm, vid stigen från byn til Kleivi, UTM: NP 144 532, alt.:, stenblock, 1937, Ahlner S. (UPS)
  • OPPLAND, ØYER, vest for Vardekampen, ved Lågen, UTM: NN 688 962, alt.: 180 m, på bergvegg, 1993, Gaarder G. & Haugan R. (Gaarder & Haugan inv.)
  • ROGALAND, FORSAND, Uburen, UTM: LL 336 318, alt.: 50-70 m, På rotenden av bjørk, 1993, Johnsen J.I. (BG)
  • ROGALAND, GJESDAL, nära Rørdalen, ca 1,5 km V om Dirdal, där Stavangervägen skär en forsande bäck, UTM: LL 395 258, alt.:, skuggig klippvägg i V. ravinsidan, 1939, Hasselrot T.E. (UPS)
  • ROGALAND, GJESDAL, Dirdal, berget W om byn, UTM: LL 37 24, alt.: 100-125 m, rikeligt på en jätteblock i blockrik brant mot fjorden, 1947, Degelius G. (UPS)
  • ROGALAND, GJESDAL, Frafjorddalen, Nesura (vid NV-ändan av Molaugsvann), UTM: LL 45 25-26, alt.: 25-30 m, +/- rikl. på ett par stora exp. block vid sjön, 1947, Degelius G. (UPS)
  • ROGALAND, HJELMELAND, Preståsen, E-sida och N-sida, tämmelig allmen, UTM: LL 392 693, alt.:, , 1947, Degelius G. (UPS)
  • ROGALAND, HJELMELAND, berget NE om kyrkan, UTM: , alt.: 40-50 m, starkt beskuggit mindre block i klibbal-sluttn. mot W, 1947, Degelius G. (UPS)
  • ROGALAND, HJELMELAND, Hjelmen, UTM: , alt.:, , 1967, Lye K. (NLH)
  • ROGALAND, HJELMELAND, Hjelmelandsvågen, Hjelmen, UTM: LL 36 69, alt.: 50-100 m, på svartor, 1979, Tønsberg T. 3042 (TRH)
  • ROGALAND, HJELMELAND, Hjelmelandsvågen, Hjelmen, UTM: LL 36 69, alt.: 50-100 m, on mossy rock, 1979, Tønsberg T. 3043 (TRH)
  • ROGALAND, HJELMELAND, Måland, UTM: LL 397 561, alt.: 60 m, på Alnus glutinosa, 1981, Gauslaa Y. (NLH)
  • ROGALAND, SANDNES, Høle, Bjønnbåsen, UTM: LL 29 31-32, alt.:, på nedfallen bjørk, 1971, Øvstedal D.O. (BG)
  • ROGALAND, SANDNES, Selvik, UTM: LL 306 309, alt.:, på Quercus, 1980, Gauslaa Y. (NLH)
  • ROGALAND, STRAND, Kvalvåg, UTM: LL 286-287 410-411, alt.:, på bjørk, 1988, Johnsen J.I. (BG)
  • ROGALAND, STRAND, Kvalvåg, UTM: LL 288 410, alt.:, On Betula, root-end, sparse, 1993, Johnsen J.I. (BG)
  • SOGN OG FJORDANE, FJALER, Gjølanger, Ospeneset, UTM: KP 993 030, alt.: 30 m, on Alnus glutinosa, 1991, Gaarder G. 456 (BG)
  • SOGN OG FJORDANE, FJALER, Gjølanger, Eikesholtet, UTM: KP 993 012, alt.: 140 m, on Alnus glutinosa, 1991, Gaarder G. 462 (BG)
  • SOGN OG FJORDANE, FLORA, W of Krokstadvatnet, UTM: LP 203 363, alt.: 110 m, on Alnus glutinosa, 1991, Gaarder G. 285 (BG)
  • SOGN OG FJORDANE, FLORA, Norddalsfjorden, N of Haukåvatnet, UTM: LP 038 406, alt.: 80 m, on Alnus glutinosa and Betula, 1991, Gaarder G. 304, 306 (BG)
  • SOGN OG FJORDANE, FLORA, Sandvikbotn, UTM: LP 043 347, alt.: 20-30 m, , 1993, Gaarder G. (Gaarder inv.)
  • SOGN OG FJORDANE, HYLLESTAD, N of Lifjorden, UTM: KN 978 863, alt.:, on Alnus glutinosa, N facing slope, 1990, Gaarder G. 83 (BG)
  • SOGN OG FJORDANE, HYLLESTAD, Indrefjord, Lifjorden, UTM: LN 004 835, alt.: 60 m, , 1991, Gaarder G. 230 (BG)
  • SOGN OG FJORDANE, HYLLESTAD, Hellem, i Lifjorden, UTM: KN 985 862, alt.: 100 m, , 1992, Gaarder G. 693 (BG)
  • SOGN OG FJORDANE, HYLLESTAD, Lekva i Lifjorden, UTM: KN 976 868, alt.: 70 m, on Alnus glutinosa, 1992, Gaarder G. 688 (BG)
  • SOGN OG FJORDANE, LÆRDAL, 2 km V for Husum, UTM: MN 32 69, alt.: 300-320 m, på skyggefull bergvegg, 1985, Holien H. 96-85 (TRH)
  • SOGN OG FJORDANE, LÆRDAL, Lærdal kai, UTM: MN 173 750, alt.: 60 m, , 1991, Gaarder G. 340 (BG)
  • SOGN OG FJORDANE, LÆRDAL, Salthjel, UTM: MN 268 698, alt.: 100 m, , 1993, Gaarder G. 959 (Gaarder inv.)
  • SOGN OG FJORDANE, LÆRDAL, Bø, UTM: MN 225 691, alt.: 100 m, , 1993, Gaarder G. 956 (Gaarder inv.)
  • SOGN OG FJORDANE, ÅRDAL, Skåri, nord for Hjelle, UTM: MP 405 028, alt.:, på stein i vegkant, 1978, Gauslaa Y. (NLH)
  • TELEMARK, SELJORD, Telnes, UTM: ML 88 87, alt.:, svagt lutande klippe mot Seljordsvatn, 1939, Hasselrot T.E. (UPS)
  • VEST-AGDER, FLEKKEFJORD, Seland, UTM: LK 673 647, alt.: 130 m, on Populus tremula in Quercus forest, 1981, Gauslaa Y. 81133 (NLH)
  • VEST-AGDER, FLEKKEFJORD, near Haugeland, UTM: LK 605 590, alt.: 200 m, on Quercus, 1981, Gauslaa Y. 81132 (NLH)