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Author: Lange, OL|Lange,OL|Lange,O L

  • Lange,O L 1948: Zusammenstellung der auf der Rhön-Exkursion (18.-22.5.1948) gefundenen Flechten. Manuskript. - \. pp. [Mattick Rec.# 23752]
    Keywords: GERMANY
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  • Lange, OL 1953: Hitze- und Trockenresistenz der Flechten in Beziehung zu ihrer Verbreitung. - Flora 140: 39-97. [RLL List # 9 / Rec.# 11059]
    Keywords: DROUGHT RESISTENCE/ WATER RELATIONS/ DISTRIBUTION/ ECOPHYSIOLOGY
    Abstract: 21 fig.
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  • Lange, OL 1954: Einige Messungen zum Warmehaushalt poikilohydrer Flechten und Moose. - Arch. Meterol., Geophysik. & Bioklimatol., ser. B: Allg. & biol. Klimatol. 5(2): 182-190. [RLL List # 12 / Rec.# 11060]
    Keywords: WATER RELATIONS/ ECOPHYSIOLOGY
    Abstract: 5 fig.
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  • Lange, OL 1955: Unteruschungen uber die Hitzeresistenz der Moose in Beziehung zu ihrer Verbreitung. I. Die Resistenz stark auggetrockneter Moose. - Flora 142: 381-399. [RLL List # 17 / Rec.# 11061]
    Keywords: ECOPHYSIOLOGY/ CLADONIA/ TEMPERATURE/ PODETIA
    Abstract: 3 fig. 2 tab. ["Temperaturverlauf im Podetium einer Cladonia, " p. 383.]
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  • Lange, OL 1956: Zur Methodik der kolorimetrischen CO2-Bestimmung nach Alvik. - Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell. 69(2): 49-60. [RLL List # 25 / Rec.# 11062]
    Keywords: CO2/ METABOLISM/ PELTIGERA/ CLADONIA/ PHYSIOLOGY
    Abstract: 6 fig. [Mention of Peltigera praetextata and Cladonia rangiferina.]
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  • Lange, OL 1957: Die Flechte Parmelia paraguariensis als Handelsware in der sudlichen Sahara. - Natur & Volk 87(8): 266-273. [RLL List # 25 / Rec.# 11063]
    Keywords: AFRICA/ PARMELIA PARAGUARIENSIS/ DISTRIBUTION
    Abstract: 7 fig.
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  • Lange, OL 1958: Einige neue Gonohymenia-Art (Lichenes) aus Mauretanien und ihre Stellung innerhalb der Gattung. - Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell. 71(7): 293-303. [RLL List # 29 / Rec.# 11064]
    Keywords: MAURITANIA/ GONOHYMENIA/ KEY/ WEST AFRICA
    Abstract: 5 fig. 1 pl. [New: Gonohymenia mauritanica sp. nov. Key to the 5 species of the genus.]
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  • Lange, OL 1961: Die Flechte Gonohymenia hugarica Szat. und ihre systemaatische Stellung. - Nova Hedwigia 3(2/3): 361-366. [RLL List # 40 / Rec.# 11065]
    Keywords: GONOHYMENIA/ KEY
    Abstract: 1 pl. [Key to the 6 species of Gonohymenia.]
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  • Lange, OL/ Bertsch, A 1965: Photosynthese der Wustenflechte Ramalina maciformis nach Wasserdampfaufnahme aus dem Luftraum. - Die Naturwissenschaften 52(9): 215-216. [RLL List # 55 / Rec.# 11011]
    Keywords: WATER RELATIONS/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ DESERT/ RAMALINA MACIFORMIS
    Abstract: 1 fig.
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  • Lange, OL 1965: Der CO2-Gaswechsel von Flechten bei tiefen Temperaturen. - Planta 64: 1-19. [RLL List # 58 / Rec.# 11067]
    Keywords: CO2 GAS EXCHANGE/ TEMPERATURE/ ECOPHYSIOLOGY
    Abstract: 13 fig. 1 tab.
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  • Lange, OL 1965: Der CO2-Gaswechsel von Flechten nach Erwarmung im feuchten Zustand. - Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell. 78: 441-454. [RLL List # 63 / Rec.# 11068]
    Keywords: CO2 GAS EXCHANGE/ PHYSIOLOGY/ CLADONIA/ USNEA/ ROCCELLA/ RAMALINA/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS
    Abstract: 5 fig. [Studies on Cladonia rangiferina, Usnea dasypoga, Roccella fucoides, and Ramalina maciformis.]
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  • Lange, OL/ Metzner, H 1965: Lichtabhangiger Kohlenstoff-Einbau in Flechten bei tiefen Temperaturen. - Dir Naturwissenschaften 52: 191. [RLL List # 58 / Rec.# 11034]
    Keywords: ECOPHYSIOLOGY/ TEMPERATURE
    Abstract: 1 tab.
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  • Lange, OL/ Schulze, ED/ Koch, W 1968: Photosynthese von Wustenflechten am naturlichen Standort nach Wasserdampfaufnahme aus dem Luftraum. - Die Naturwissenschaften 55: 658-659. [RLL List # 70 / Rec.# 11046]
    Keywords: PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ PHYSIOLOGY/ WATER RELATIONS
    Abstract: 1 fig.
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  • Schulze, ED/ Lange, OL 1968: CO2-Gaswechsel der Flechte Hypogymnia physodes bei tiefen Temperaturen im Freiland. - Flora, Abt. B 158: 180-184. [RLL List # 70 / Rec.# 16757]
    Keywords: HYPOGYMNIA PHYSODES/ CO2 GAS EXCHANGE/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ TEMPERATURE/ ECOPHYSIOLOGY/ GERMANY
    Abstract: 1 fig. ["Though temperature did not increase above 4 deg.C ... and light intensity was low because of snow showers, the net photosynthesis of the lichen was positive all day."--English summary.]
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  • Lange, OL 1969: Die funktionellen Anpassungen der Flechten an die okologischen Bedingungen arider Gebiete. - Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell. 82: 3-22. [RLL List # 72 / Rec.# 11070]
    Keywords: ECOLOGY/ ADAPTATIONS/ WATER RELATIONS/ ARIDITY
    Abstract: 16 fig.
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  • Lange, OL 1969: Experimentell-okologische Untersuchungen an Flechten der Negev-Wuste. I. CO2-Gaswechsel von Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory unter kontrollierten Bedingungen im Laboratorium. - Flora, Abt. B 158: 324-359. [RLL List # 74 / Rec.# 11071]
    Keywords: RAMALINA/ NEGEV DESERT/ ECOPHYSIOLOGY/ CO2 GAS EXCHANGE/ TEMPERATURE/ LIGHT/ WATER RELATIONS
    Abstract: 17 fig. [Long summary in English. Effects of water, temperature, and light; detailed study.]
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  • Kappen, I/ Lange, OL 1970: The cold resistance of phycobionts from macrolichens of various habitats. - Lichenologist 4: 289-293. [RLL List # 78 / Rec.# 9762]
    Keywords: COLD RESISTANCE/ ADAPTATIONS/ ECOPHYSIOLOGY/ TEMPERATURE/ MACROLICHENS/ ECOLOGY
    Abstract: 1 tab. [23 species.]
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  • Kappen, L/ Lange, OL 1970: Kalteresistenz von Flechten aus verschiedenen Klimagebieten. - Vortrage aus dem Gesamtgebiet der Botanik, N.F. [Deutsch. Bot. Ges.] 4: 61-65. [RLL List # 75 / Rec.# 9774]
    Keywords: ECOPHYSIOLOGY/ COLD RESISTENCE/ TEMPERATURE
    Abstract: 2 fig. 1 tab. [English summary.]
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  • Lange, OL/ Schulze, ED/ Koch, W 1970: Evaluation of photosynthesis measurements taken in the field. - In: : Prediction and Measurement of Photosynthetic Productivity. Proc. IBP/PP Tech. Meet., Trebon, 14-21 Sept. 1969. Centre for Agricultural Publication and Documentation, Wageningen, pp. 339-352. [RLL List # 81 / Rec.# 11047]
    Keywords: NEGEV DESERT/ ECOPHYSIOLOGY/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ MEASUREMENTS/ TECHNIQUES/ LANGE
    Abstract: [Review of Lange's research in the Negev Desert.]
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  • Lange, OL/ Schulze, ED/ Koch, W 1970: Experimentell-okologische Untersuchungen an Flechten der Negev-Wuste. II. CO2-Gaswechsel und Wasserhaushalt von Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory am naturlichen Standort wahrend der sommerlichen Trockenperiode. - Flora 159: 38-62. [RLL List # 76 / Rec.# 11048]
    Keywords: ECOPHYSIOLOGY/ WATER RELATIONS/ GAS EXCHANGE/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ NEGEV DESERT/ ISRAEL/ NIGHT RESPIRATION
    Abstract: 12 fig. 2 tab. ["The lichen thalli are so much moistened, as a result of the nightly dew fall, that an apparent CO2-uptake is possible for a period of approx. 3 hours following sunrise.... In the natural habitat lichens, which have become dried-out during the daytime, are also capable of absorbing enought water vapour without any dew condensation from the surrounding moist air at night to enable a short period of photosynthetic acitivity during the morning. The resulting CO2-yield exceeds significantly the loss due to night respiration, so that a positive daily CO2 balance results.... The capability of the lichens to use dew moisture and water vapour to activate their photosynthetic synthesis explains their existence and distribution in the Negev."]
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  • Lange, OL/ Schulze, ED/ Koch, W 1970: Experimentell-okologische Untersuchungen an Flechten der Negev-Wuste. III. CO2-Gaswechsel un Wasserhaushalt von Krusten- und Blattflechten am Naturlichen Standort wahrend der sommerlichen Trockenperiode. - Flora 159: 525-538. [RLL List # 81 / Rec.# 11049]
    Keywords: CO2 GAS EXCHANGE/ ECOPHYSIOLOGY/ NEGEV DESERT/ ISRAEL/ WATER RELATIONS
    Abstract: 5 fig. 1 tab.
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  • Noeske, O/ Lauchili, A/ Lange, OL/ Vieweg, GH/ Ziegler, H 1970: Koncentration und Lokalisieruing von Schwermetallen in Flechten der Erzschlackenhalden des Harzes. - Vortrage aus dem Gesamtegebiet der Botanik, N.F. [Deutsch. Bot. Ges.] 4: 67-79. [RLL List # 75 / Rec.# 13666]
    Keywords: HEAVY METALS/ HISTOLOGY/ MORPHOLOGY/ AIR POLLUTION
    Abstract: 4 fig. 7 tab. [The histological distribution of heavy metals in lichen tahlli.]
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  • Lange, OL/ Evenari, M 1971: Experimentell-okologische Untersuchungen an Flechten der Negev-Wuste. IV. Wachtumsmessungen an Caloplaca aurantia (Pers.) Hellb.. - Flora 160: 100-104. [RLL List # 81 / Rec.# 11016]
    Keywords: CALOPLACA/ NEGEV DESERT/ ISRAEL/ DEVELOPMENT/ ECOPHYSIOLOGY
    Abstract: 3 fig. 2 tab.
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  • Kappen, L/ Lange, OL 1972: Die Kaltresistenz einiger Makrolichenen. - Flora 161: 1-29. [RLL List # 82 / Rec.# 9775]
    Keywords: COLD INJURY/ TEMPERATURE/ ADAPTATIONS
    Abstract: 13 fig. 3 tab. ["Cold injury conclusively may only occur when ice is formed within the cells."--English summary.]
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  • Lange, OL/ Kappen, L 1972: Phytosynthesis of lichens from Antarctica. - Antarctic Res. Ser., Antarctic Terrestrial Biol. 20: 83-95. [RLL List # 84 / Rec.# 11026]
    Keywords: PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ ANTARCTICA/ PHYSIOLOGY/ ADAPTATIONS
    Abstract: 6 fig.
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  • Lange, OL 1972: Wasserumsatz und Stoffbewegungen. Bericht uber die Arbeiten zum Wasserumsatz in den Jahren 1969-1971. - Fortschr. Bot. 34: 91-112. [RLL List # 84 / Rec.# 11073]
    Keywords: WATER RELATIONS/ PHYSIOLOGY
    Abstract: [Includes lichens, p. 104.]
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  • Lange, OL 1973: Ecophysiological investigations on lichens of the Negev Desert. I. CO2 gas exchange of Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory under controlled conditions in the laboratory. - Technical Translation 1654. National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. 60 pp. [RLL List # 90 / Rec.# 11074]
    Keywords: NEGEV DESERT / RAMALINA MACIFORMIS / CO2 GAS EXCHANGE / ECOPHYSIOLOGY / WATER RELATIONS / ISRAEL
    Abstract: [A translation from the German of an article from Flora 158B: 324-359. 1969. Processed publication.]
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  • Lange, OL/ Schulze, ED/ Koch, W 1973: Ecophysiological investigations on lichens of the Negev Desert. II. CO2 gas exchange and water conservation of Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory in its natural habitat during the summer dry period. - Technical Translation 1655. National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. 31 pp. [RLL List # 90 / Rec.# 11050]
    Keywords: RAMALINA MACIFORMIS / CO2 GAS EXCHANGE / WATER RELATIONS / NEGEV DESERT / ISRAEL
    Abstract: [A translation from the German of an article from Flora 159: 38-62. 1970. Processed publication.]
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  • Turk, R/ Wirth, V/ Lange, OL 1974: CO2-Gaswechsel-Untersuchungen zur SO2-Resistenz von Flechten. - Oecologia 15: 33-64. [RLL List # 89 / Rec.# 19083]
    Keywords: CO2-GAS EXCHANGE/ SO2-RESISTANCE/ ECOPHYSIOLOGY
    Abstract: [A very detailed study showing "the compexity of an ecological interpretation of experimentally determined resistance phenomena." English summary.]
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  • Turk, R/ Wirth, V/ Lange, OL 1974: CO2-Gaswechsel-Untersuchungen zur SO2-Resistenz von Flechten. - Oecologia 15: 33-64. [RLL List # 90 / Rec.# 19084]
    Keywords: CO2 GAS EXCHANGE / SO2 RESISTANCE / POLLUTION / ECOPHYSIOLOGY
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  • Evenari, M/ Schulze, ED/ Kappen, L/ Buschbom, U/ Lange, OL 1975: Adaptive mechanisms in desert plants. - In: F. J. Vernberg (ed.): Physiological Adaptations to the Environment. Intext Educational Publishers, New York, pp. 111-129. [RLL List # 95 / Rec.# 5342]
    Keywords: ADAPTATIONS/ ECOLOGY/ EVOLUTION/ DESERTS/ RAMALINA
    Abstract: [Includes the classic example of Ramalina maciformis.]
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  • Kappen, L/ Lange, OL/ Schulze, ED/ Evenari, M/ Buschbom, U 1975: Primary production of lower plants (lichens) in the desert and its physiological basis. - In: : Photosynthesis and Productivity in Different Environments. International Biological Programme. Vol. 3. Cambridge University Press, pp. 133-143. [RLL List # 94 / Rec.# 9772]
    Keywords: PRIMARY PRODUCTION/ ECOLOGY/ BIOMASS/ DESERT/ PHYSIOLOGY
    Abstract: 13 figures.
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  • Lange, OL 1975: Plant water relations. - Fortschr. der Bot. 37: 78-97. [RLL List # 94 / Rec.# 11075]
    Keywords: WATER RELATIONS/ ECOLOGY/ PHYSIOLOGY
    Abstract: [Includes lichens.]
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  • Lange, OL/ Schulze, ED/ Kappen, L/ Buschbom, U/ Evenari, M 1975: Adaptations of desert lichens to drought and extreme temperatures. - In: N. F. Hadley (ed.): Environmental Physiology of Desert Organisms. Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, PA, pp. 20-37. [RLL List # 94 / Rec.# 11045]
    Keywords: ADAPTATIONS/ DESERT/ TEMPERATURES/ WATER REALTIONS/ ECOLOGY
    Abstract: 11 figures.
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  • Lange, OL/ Geiger, IL/ Schulze, ED 1977: Ecophysiological investigation on lichens of the Negev Desert. V. A model to simulate net photosynthesis and respiration of Ramalina maciformis. - Oecologia 28: 247-259. [RLL List # 97 / Rec.# 11017]
    Keywords: ECOLOGY/ PHYSIOLOGY/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ MODELS/ RAMALINA/ NEGEV/ ISRAEL/ DESERT/ RESPIRATION
    Abstract: 8 figures. 3 tables.
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  • Kappen, L/ Lange, OL/ Schulze, ED/ Evenari, M/ Buschbom, U 1979: Ecolphysiological investigations on lichens of the Negev Desert. VI. Annual course of photosynthetic production of Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory. - Flora 168: 85-108. [RLL List # 103-49 / Rec.# 9773]
    Keywords: ECOPHYSIOLOGY/ WATER RELATIONS/ NEGEV/ DESERT/ ISRAEL/ DEW
    Abstract: 11 figures. 4 tables. [In addition to considerable data presented on gas exchange in relation to light, temperature and water content, the authors conclude that, "The existence of many lichens in the Negev is only possible because of the high frequency and regularity of dew-falls."]
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  • Lange, OL/ Losch, R 1979: Plant water relations. - Progress in Botany, Fortschritte der Botanik : 12-43. [RLL List # 111-47 / Rec.# 11032]
    Keywords: WATER RELATIONS/ REVIEW
    Abstract: [Detailed literature review of period 1975-1978. Lichen water relations mentioned on page 31.]
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  • Rundel, PW/ Bratt, GC/ Lange, OL 1979: Habitat ecology and physiological response of Sticta filix and Pseudocyphellaria delisei from Tasmania. - The Bryologist 82: 171-180. [RLL List # 104-96 / Rec.# 16001]
    Keywords: STICTA/ PSEUDOCYPHELLARIA/ WATER RELATIONS/ TASMANIA/ AUSTRALIA/ OWN
    Abstract: 10 figures. 3 tables. [Physiological responses of the two taxa "account for the relative dominance of S. filix in shady habitats and P. delisei in more open sites."]
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  • Kappen, L/ Lange, OL/ Schulze, ED/ Buschbom, U/ Evenari, M 1980: Ecophysiological investigations on lichens of the Negev. VII. The influence of the habitat exposure on dew imbibition and photosynthetic productivity. - Flora 169: 216-229. [RLL List # 109-56 / Rec.# 9771]
    Keywords: ECOPHYSIOLOGY/ ISRAEL/ DESERT/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ WATER RELATIONS/ NEGEV
    Abstract: 3 tables. 6 figures. [The high lichen density and species richness are highest on northern exposures due, at least in part, to higher rates of dew imbibition and greater net photosynthetic production.]
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  • Lange, OL 1980: Moisture content and CO2 exchange of lichens. I. Influence of temperature on moisture-dependent net photosynthesis and dark respiration in Ramalina maciformis. - Oecologia 45: 82-87. [RLL List # 108-54 / Rec.# 11076]
    Keywords: CO2 EXCHANGE/ RAMALINA/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ RESPIRATION/ WATER RELATIONS
    Abstract: 7 figures. 1 table. ["...results may be interpreted in terms of temperature-dependent CO2 diffusion resistances in imbibed lichen thalli."]
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  • Lange, OL/ Tenhunen, JD 1981: Moisture content and CO2 exchange of lichens. II. Depression of net photosynthesis in Ramalina maciformis at high water content is caused by increased thallus carbon dioxide diffusion resistance. - Oecologia 51: 426-429. [RLL List # 113-57 / Rec.# 11053]
    Keywords: RAMALINA/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ WATER RELATIONS/ CO2 DIFFUSION/ PHYSIOLOGY
    Abstract: ["We conclude that the carboxylation capacity of the lichen is not affected by high contents of liquid water. Therefore, the depression of CO2 uptake of the water saturated lichen at lower (e.g. natural) ambient CO2 must be due exclusively to increased resistance to CO2 diffusion from external air to the sites of carboxylation."]
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  • Nash, TH", III/ Lange, OL/ Kappen, L 1982: Photosynthetic patterns of Sonoran Desert lichens II. A multivariate laboratory analysis. - Flora 172: 419-426. [RLL List # 118-60 / Rec.# 13358]
    Keywords: PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ SONORAN DESERT/ PARMELIA/ XANTHOPARMELIA/ ACAROSPORA/ LIGHT/ TEMPERATURE/ ADAPTATION
    Abstract: 2 figures. [Study on Parmelia kurokawae and Acarospora schleicheri during drying under four light regimes and five temperatures. "The relatively low temperature optima reflect the fact that the lichens are most active in winter, particularly in early morning hours."]
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  • Lange, OL 1983: Oscar Klement 1897 bis 1980. - Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 96: 577-589. [RLL List # 121-52 / Rec.# 11077]
    Keywords: NECROLOGY/ OBITUARY/ BIBLIOGRAPHY
    Abstract: 1 figure. [Tribute to Oscar Klement including a list of nomenclatural changes and a bibliography of his publications.]
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  • Lange, OL/ Redon, J 1983: Epiphytische Flechten im Bereich einer chilenischen "Nebeloase" (Fray Jorge). II. Okophysiologische Charakterisierung von CO2- Gaswechsel und Wasserhaushalt. - Flora 174: 245-284. [RLL List # 120-88 / Rec.# 11041]
    Keywords: CHILE/ OWN/ FOG ZONE/ ECOPHYSIOLOGY/ WATER RELATIONS/ GAS EXCHANGE/ EVERNIOPSIS/ USNEA/ HETERODERMIA/ RAMALINA
    Abstract: 4 tables. 29 figures. ["Under controlled conditions, photosynthesis and respiration are reported as influenced by water content of the thalli, light intensity, and temperature, for selected species...." The authors conclude that the "...capability of the thalli to use air humidity as their main water source and their ability to conduct positive photosynthesis at extremely low thallus water potentials, are necessary characteristics for the existence of these species..." in the Chilean fog oasis. Measurements were made on Everniopsis trulla, Usnea lacerata, Heterodermia spinulosa, and Ramalina cactacearum.]
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  • Redon, J/ Lange, OL 1983: Epiphytische Flechten im Bereich einer chilenischen "Nebeloase" (Fray Jorge). I. Vegetationskundliche Gliederung und Standortsbedingungen. - Flora 174: 213-243. [RLL List # 120-107 / Rec.# 15468]
    Keywords: CHILE/ OWN/ FOG ZONE/ CLIMATE/ DISTRIBUTION/ WATER RELATIONS
    Abstract: 16 figures. 2 tables. [A study of distributional patterns and habitat conditions of Chilean "fog oasis" lichens in Fray Jorge National Park. Authors describe two major lichen associations and discuss the lichen species' abilities to absorb water vapor from fog even though no condensation occurs. Authors measured diurnal courses of light intensity, air temperature, air humidity and lichen thallus temperature during characteristic weather conditions in various seasons of the year.]
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  • Lange, OL/ Beyschlag, W/ Meyer, A/ Tenhunen, JD 1984: Determiantion of photosynthetic capacity of lichens in the field--a method for measurement of light response curves at saturating CO2 concentration. - Flora 175: 283-293. [RLL List # 122-48 / Rec.# 11012]
    Keywords: PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ MINICUVETTE/ PARMELIA/ EVERNIA/ XANTHORIA/ FIELD MEASUREMENTS
    Abstract: 5 figures. ["A newly developed, portable minicuvette system is described which allows quick and reliable determination of photosynthetic capacity of lichens in the field." Study includes sample data on Parmelia reticulata, Evernia prunastri, and Xanthoria parietina.]
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  • Lange, OL/ Kilian, E/ Meyer, A/ Tenhunen, JD 1984: Measurement of lichen photosynthesis in the field with a portable steady-state CO2-porometer. - Lichenologist 16: 1-9. [RLL List # 120-87 / Rec.# 11028]
    Keywords: PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ OWN/ FIELD/ GAS EXCHANGE/ POROMETER
    Abstract: 4 figures. ["A portable system for CO2 gas exchange measurements is described which allows determination of photosynthesis and respiration rates of lichens (and mosses) in the field under light, humidity and temperature conditions which are close to ambient. Between the periods of gas exchange measurement, the lichens experience their natural microclimatic conditions." Examples of gas exchange are presented for lichens south of Lisbon, Portugal.]
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  • Lange, OL/ Tenhunen, JD 1984: A Minicuvette System for Measurement of CO2 Exchange and Transpiration of Plants under Controlled Conditions in Field and Laboratory. - Heinz Walz Mess- und Regeltechnik, Effeltrich, F.R.G. 11 pp. [RLL List # 127-105 / Rec.# 11055]
    Keywords: TECHNIQUE/ INSTRUMENTATION/ WATER RELATIONS/ ECOLOGY/ PHYSIOLOGY
    Abstract: 8 figures. [Manufacturers bulletin describing the use of this portable CO2 gas exchange measurement system. The unit has been used for lichen and higher plant investigations.]
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  • Lange, OL/ Kilian, E 1985: Reaktivierung der Photosynthese trockener Flechten durch Wasserdampfaufnahme aus dem Luftraum: Artspezifisch unterschiedliches Verhalten. - Flora 176: 7-23. [RLL List # 127-104 / Rec.# 11031]
    Keywords: PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ WATER RELATIONS/ PHYSIOLOGY/ REACTIVATION RESPONSE
    Abstract: 2 tables. 9 figures. ["The present investigation compares different types of lichens from different climatic regions with respect to their ability to be activated by water vapor uptake." Results show that "habitat adaptations are clearly recognizable" and that "... there are also distinct differences between lichen types in the response to moistening with liquid water." The gelatinous lichens apparently depend entirely on liquid water for photosynthetic acitivation unlike all the others.]
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  • Lange, OL/ Tenhunen, JD/ Harley, P/ Walz, H 1985: Method for field measurements of CO2-exchange. The diurnal changes in net photosynthesis and photosynthetic capacity of lichens under Mediterranean climatic conditions. - In: D. H. Brown (ed.): Lichen Physiology and Cell Biology. Plenum Press, London and New York, pp. 23-39. [RLL List # 127-107 / Rec.# 11052]
    Keywords: TECHNIQUE/ CO2 EXCHANGE/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ MEDITERRANEAN/ POROMETER/ PARMELIA/ CLADONIA/ PARMOTREMA
    Abstract: 1 table. 12 figures. [Studies conducted using Parmelia reticulata and Cladonia portentosa in Portugal are described. Authors give extensive description and explanation of the use of a portable CO2-porometer and the development of a model for lichen CO2 exchange. "Our experience suggests that we can expect to improve our model many times before it satisfactorily reproduces the real-world situation. Instrumentation has been described here which permits these kinds of investigations."]
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  • Lange, OL/ Tenhunen, JD 1985: CO2/H2O Porometer for the Measurement of CO2 Gas Exchange and Transpiration of Plants under Natural Conditions. - Heinz Walz Mess- und Regeltechnik, Effeltrich, F.R.G. 13 pp. [RLL List # 127-106 / Rec.# 11056]
    Keywords: TECHNIQUE/ CO2 EXCHANGE/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ WATER RELATIONS/ TRANSPIRATION
    Abstract: 8 figures. [Manufacturers bulletin describing the use of this portable porometer system. The unit has been used for lichen and higher plant investigations.]
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  • Kostner, B/ Lange, OL 1986: Epiphytische Flechten in bayerischen Waldschadensgebieten des nordlichen Alpenraumes: Floristisch-soziologische Untersuchungen und Vitalitatstests durch Photosynthesemessungen. - Berichte der Akademie fur Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege 10: 185-210. [RLL List # 131 / Rec.# 10388]
    Keywords: GERMANY/ GARMISH/ ALPS/ AIR POLLUTION/ SPRUCE/ PHYTOSOCIOLOGY/ SO2/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ CO2 EXCHANGE
    Abstract: 8 tables. 4 figures. [Study of lichens, SO2 pollution, and spruce tree damage in the Bavarian Alps. "In the present study there were no indications of any impact of sulphur dioxide on the viability or physiological activity of the epiphytic lichens. A rich vegetation of lichens, including sensitive species, was found growing even directly on branches of spruce trees which were damaged, as indicated by chlorosis and loss of needles." Authors conclude " ... from these findings, that a direct influence of atmospheric sulphur dioxide is likely not the cause of the observed tree damage."]
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  • Lange, OL/ Kilian, E/ Ziegler, H 1986: Water vapor uptake and photosynthesis of lichens: performance differences in species with green and blue-green algae as phycobionts. - Oecologia 71: 104-110. [RLL List # 131 / Rec.# 11029]
    Keywords: WATER RELATIONS/ NEPHROMA/ PELTIGERA/ ECOPHYSIOLOGY/ PHOTOBIONT/ NOSTOC/ LOBARIA/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ RESPIRATION
    Abstract: 8 figures. [Studies on species of several genera. "Carbon isotope ratios of the lichen thalli suggest that a definite ecological difference exists in water status-dependent photosynthesis of species with green and blue-green phycobionts. Apparently, a fundamental difference in the structure of the two groups of algae is involved."]
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  • Lange, OL/ Ziegler, H 1986: Different limiting processes of photosynthesis in lichens. - In: R. Marcelle, H. Clijsters & M. Van Poucke (eds.): Biological Control of Photosynthesis. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 147-161. [RLL List # 127-108 / Rec.# 11058]
    Keywords: PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ PHYSIOLOGY/ CO2 EXCHANGE/ REACTIVATION/ WATER RELATIONS
    Abstract: 7 figures. 2 tables. ["It was shown by analyzing CO2 exchange that air-dry thalli of lichens with green algae as phycobionts can be reactivated to attain net photosynthesis by supply with humid air alone or with liquid water, while dry thalli from lichens with cyanobacteria need liquid water. This is true in the latter group for gelatinous, homoiomerous species as well as for the non-gelatinous, heteromerous. These different reactivation types are also found in species of one genus, if they contain green or blue green phycobionts."]
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  • Lange, OL/ Green, TGA/ Ziegler, H 1988: Water status related photosynthesis and carbon isotope discrimination in species of the lichen genus Pseudocyphellaria with green or blue-green photobionts and in photosymbiodemes. - Oecologia [Berlin] 75: 494-501. [RLL List # 136 / Rec.# 11021]
    Keywords: PSEUDOCYPHELLARIA/ WATER RELATIONS/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ ISOTOPES/ PHOTOBIONTS/ PHOTOSYMBIODEMES
    Abstract: 4 tables. 2 figures. ["Green lichens have been shown to attain positive net photosynthesis in the presence of water vapour while blue-green lichens require liquid water.... The behaviour is confirmed not only for species with differing photobionts in the genus Pseudocyphellaria but for green and blue-green photobionts in a single joined thallus (photosymbiodeme), with a single mycobiont, and also when adjacent as co-primary photobionts. The different response is therefore a property of the photobiont. It is proposed that the presence of sugar alcohols in green algae allow them to retain a liquid pool (concentrated solution) in their chloroplasts at low water potentials and even to reform it by water vapour uptake after being dried."]
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  • Lange, OL 1988: Ecophysiology of photosynthesis: performance of poikilohydric and homoiohydric plants. - In: W. Greuter & B. Zimmer (eds.): Proceedings of the XIV International Botanical Congress. Koeltz, Konigstein/Taunus, pp. 357-383. [RLL List # 139 / Rec.# 11078]
    Keywords: ECOPHYSIOLOGY/ MEDITERRANEAN/ POIKILOHYDRIC
    Abstract: 16 figures. 1 table. ["Primary production of lichens is governed through their thallus water content and time periods of metabolic activity are restricted. Species with green algae are even able to make use of high air humidity without hydration by liquid water." Reprinted, in essence, in the Journal of Ecology 76: 915-937.]
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  • Lange, OL 1988: Ecophysiology of photosynthesis: performance of poikilohydric lichens and homoiohydric Mediterranean sclerophylls. - Journal of Ecology 76: 915-937. [RLL List # 139 / Rec.# 11079]
    Keywords: WATER RELATIONS/ POIKILOHYDRIC/ MEDITERRANEAN/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS
    Abstract: 19 figures. 1 table. [Summary of many investigations on a number of lichen species and comparisons with higher plants.]
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  • Nash, TH", III/ Lange, OL 1988: Responses of lichens to salinity: concentration and time-course relationships and variability among Californian species. - New Phytologist 109: 361-367. [RLL List # 135 / Rec.# 13359]
    Keywords: CALIFORNIA/ PHYSIOLOGY/ SALINITY/ DENDROGRAPHA/ PSEUDOCYPHELLARIA/ EVERNIA/ RAMALINA/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ RESPIRATION
    Abstract: 3 figures. 2 tables. ["Sensitivity to salinity varied widely among 12 Californian lichen species occurring along a coastal to inland gradient, with the degree of sensitivity being approximately proportional to the distance from the coast where the species grew." Authors also conclude, "The results of the experiments with different solutions at equal osmotic potentials indicate that the sensitive species are responding to both osmotic and salt ion effects. These species may provide a good system for investigating mechanisms involved in purely osmotic versus ionic effects."]
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  • Hahn, S/ Speer, D/ Meyer, A/ Lange, OL 1989: Photosynthetische Primarproduktion von epigaischen Flechten im "Mainfrankischen Trockenrasen". I. Tageslaufe von Mikroklima, Wassergehalt und CO2-Geswechsel zu den verschiedenen Jahreszeiten. - Flora 182: 313-339. [RLL List # 139 / Rec.# 7311]
    Keywords: PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY/ WATER RELATIONS/ MICROCLIMATE/ TERRICOLOUS/ BAVARIA/ GERMANY/ CO2 EXCHANGE
    Abstract: 22 figures. ["For each season of the year there were specific cases of weather conditions which could be classified into uniform types, and the related responses in net photosynthesis and water status are described in schemes and diurnal courses. Further results, as general light and water content dependent photosynthesis curves derived from the measured parameter, and seasonally shifting photosynthesis responses which occurred in some species, are discussed."]
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  • Lange, OL/ Bilger, W/ Rimke, S/ Schreiber, U 1989: Chlorophyll fluorescence of lichens containing green and blue-green algae during hydration by water vapor uptake and by addition of liquid water. - Botanica Acta 102: 306-313. [RLL List # 142 / Rec.# 11014]
    Keywords: ALGAE/ CYANOBACTERIA/ PHOTOBIONT/ WATER RELATIONS/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE/ DESICCATION/ RAMALINA/ PELTIGERA
    Abstract: 6 figures. ["Both lichens differed not only with respect to their ability to rehydrate and reactivate photosynthetic functions by water vapour uptake, but also with respect to the speed of the restitution of the photosynthetic apparatus after sudden hydration of dry thalli by liquid water." The authors conclude that " ... the reactivation of photosynthesis in blue-green algae-containing lichens is not prevented through high diffusion resistance for water."]
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  • Demmig-Adams, B/ Adams, WW", III/ Czygan, FC/ Schreiber, U/ Lange, OL 1990: Differences in the capacity for radiationless energy dissipation in the photochemical apparatus of green and blue-green algal lichens associated with differences in carotenoid composition. - Planta 180(4): 582-589. [RLL List # 142 / Rec.# 4217]
    Keywords: ALGAE/ ENERGY DISSIPATION/ CAROTENOIDS/ CHEMISTRY/ ADAPTATIONS/ PHOTOPROTECTION/ ZEAXANTHIN
    Abstract: 2 tables. 4 figures. ["We conclude that the pronounced difference in the capicity for photoprotective energy dissipation in the antenna chlorophyll (zeaxanthin-containing) green algal lichens and (zeaxanthin-free) blue-green algal lichens is related to the presence or absence of zeaxanthin, and that this difference can explain the greater susceptibility to high-light stress in lichens with blue-green phycobionts."]
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  • Demmig-Adams, B/ Adams, WW", III/ Green, TGA/ Czygan, FC/ Lange, OL 1990: Differences in the susceptibility to light stress in two lichens forming a phycosymbiodeme, one partner possessing and one lacking the xanthophyll cycle. - Oecologia 84: 451-456. [RLL List # 142 / Rec.# 4218]
    Keywords: PHYCOSYMBIODEME/ LIGHT STRESS/ XANTHOPHYLLS/ CAROTENOIDS/ PSEUDOCYPHELLARIA
    Abstract: 1 table. 4 figures. [Study on Pseudocyphellaria rufovirescens-P. murrayi phycosymbiodeme. "These findings represent further evidence that zeaxanthin is involved in the photoprotective dissipation of excessive excitation energy in photosynthetic membranes. The difference in the capacity for rapid zeaxanthin formation between the two partners of the Pseudocyphellaria phycosymbiodeme may be important in the habitat selection of the two species when living separate from one another."]
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  • Demmig-Adams, B/ Maguas, C/ Adams, WW", III/ Meyer, A/ Kilian, E/ Lange, OL 1990: Effect of high light on the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion in a variety of lichen species with green and blue-green phycobionts. - Planta 180(3): 400-409. [RLL List # 142 / Rec.# 4219]
    Keywords: PHOTOCHEMISTRY/ ENERGY CONVERSION/ PHOTOBIONTS/ ALGAE/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ LIGHT STRESS
    Abstract: 2 tables. 4 figures. ["It will thus be important to examine the response of lichens to the interaction of natural light levels and hydration status, and to evaluate the importance of light as a stress factor which may influence the distribution of species."]
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  • Lange, OL/ Kilian, E/ Ziegler, H 1990: Photosynthese von Blattflechten mit hygroskopischen Thallusbewegungen bei Befeuchtung durch Wasserdampf oder mit flussigem Wasser. - In: H. M. Jahns (ed.): Contributions to Lichenology in Honour of A. Henssen. Bibliotheca Lichenologica. No. 38. J. Cramer, Berlin-Stuttgart, pp. 311-323. [RLL List # 141 / Rec.# 11030]
    Keywords: WATER RELATIONS/ CHONDROPSIS/ XANTHOMACULINA/ CLADONIA
    Abstract: 1 figure. 2 tables. [Water relations and photosynthesis in Chrondropis semiviridis, Xanthomaculina convoluta, and Cladonia convoluta.]
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  • Lange, OL 1990: Twenty-three years of growth measurements on the crustose lichen Caloplaca aurantia in the central Negev Desert. - Israel Journal of Botany 39: 383-394. [RLL List # 142 / Rec.# 11080]
    Keywords: NEGEV DESERT/ ISRAEL/ CRUSTOSE/ GROWTH RATE/ CALOPLACA/ DIPLOSCHISTES
    Abstract: 6 figures. 1 table. ["It can be cautiously estimated that a Caloplaca aurantia thallus 10 cm in diameter near Avdat can be estimated to have an age of about 135 years. Because the largest thallus of this species found near Avdat can be estimated to have an age of about 500 years, it is certainly one of the oldest "individual" organisms in this area."]
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  • Lange, OL/ Meyer, A/ Zellner, H/ Ullmann, I/ Wessels, DCJ 1990: Eight days in the life of a desert lichen: water relations and photosynthesis of Teloschistes capensis in the coastal fog zone of the Namib Desert. - Madoqua 17(1): 17-30. [RLL List # 142 / Rec.# 11038]
    Keywords: TELOSCHISTES/ NAMIBIA/ AFRICA/ FOG ZONE/ FRUTICOSE/ DESERT/ WATER RELATIONS/ DESERT/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS
    Abstract: 2 tables. 8 figures (3 in color). ["It is instructive to imagine that every morning after nightly fog and dew for a short period of time Teloschistes capensis in the lichen fields of the Namib Desert is photosynthesizing with rates similar to those of a closed layer of beech leaves in a forest in Germany." Authors estimate a net gain for a year's growth of about 20% of the active biomass of the lichen.]
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  • Lange, OL/ Pfanz, H/ Kilian, E/ Meyer, A 1990: Effect of low water potential on photosynthesis in intact lichens and their liberated algal components. - Planta 182: 467-472. [RLL List # 142 / Rec.# 11040]
    Keywords: PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ ALGAE/ PHYCOBIONT/ DROUGHT STRESS/ DESICCATION/ PROTECTION/ MYCOBIONT
    Abstract: 2 tables. 4 figures. ["We found no difference between the effects of low water potential on intact lichens and their liberated algal components (ground thallus material and isolated algae) and no indication that the fungal component of the lichen symbiosis protects the phycobiont from the adverse effects of desiccation once equilibrium conditions are reached. The photosynthetic apparatus of the phycobiont alone proved to be highly adapted to water stress as it possesses not only the capacity of functioning under extremely low degrees of hydration but also of becoming reactivated solely by water vapor uptake."]
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  • Nash, TH", III/ Reiner, A/ Demmig-Adams, B/ Kilian, E/ Kaiser, WM/ Lange, OL 1990: The effect of atmospheric desiccation and osmotic water stress on photosynthesis and dark respiration of lichens. - New Phytologist 116: 269-276. [RLL List # 142 / Rec.# 13364]
    Keywords: WATER RELATIONS/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ RESPIRATION/ PHYSIOLOGY/ SALINITY/ CALIFORNIA/ RAMALINA/ PSEUDOCYPHELLARIA/ EVERNIA
    Abstract: 1 table. 2 figures. [Study of photosynthetic and respiratory rates was conducted on Ramalina menziesii, Dendrographa minor, Evernia prunastri, and Pseudocyphellaria anthraspis from California by changing water potential through desiccation or osmotic stress using sea salt or sorbitol solutions. "These species provide a model system to differentiate the effect of atmospheric desiccation and osmotic stress on lichen metabolism, and to study the interaction of drought per se with other stress factors such as salt and high light."]
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  • Bruns-Strenge, S/ Lange, OL 1991: Photosynthetische Primärproduktion der Flechte Cladonia portentosa an einem Dünenstandort auf der Nordseeinsel Baltrum. I. Freilandmessungen von Microklima, Wassergehalt und CO2-Gaswechsel [Photosynthetic primary production of the lichen Cladonia portentosa in a dune habitat at the Island Baltrum in the North Sea. I. Field measurements of microclimate, water relations and CO2-exchange]. - Flora 185: 73-97. [RLL List #  / Rec.# 2574]
    Keywords: CO2 EXCHANGE/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ PRIMARY PRODUCTION/ SAND DUNES
    Abstract: 23 fig. 1 tab. ["In its natural habitat of stabilized dunes on the island Baltrum (North Sea), microclimatic conditins for Cladonia portentosa were recorded (air and thallus temperature, rel. humidity, photosynthetically active radiation). In parallel, water content of the lichen (WG, % of dry weight) was determined. With respect to lichen hydration, the 56 diurnal courses of measurements, which were spread over several seasons could be grouped into 5 different types: (1) WG continuously low; (2) nocturnal moistening (e.g. by dew fall) and high WG at sunrise; (3) days with fog and high WG throughout; (4) days with rain and long lasting high WG; (5) lichens covered by snow. In addition, during 24 days in the summer and in the winter, diurnal courses of CO2 exchange of the lichen were followed together with the WG and the microclimatic conditions. These days could be separated according to the above types. This provides an overview for the performance in production ecology of the lichen."]
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  • Büdel, B/ Lange, OL 1991: Water status of green and blue-green phycobionts in lichen thalli after hydration by water vapor uptake: do they become turgid. - Botanica Acta 104(5): 361-366. [RLL List #  / Rec.# 1334]
    Keywords: BLUE-GREEN ALGAE/ HYDRATION/ WATER RELATIONS
    Abstract: 12 fig. ["It is known from previous investigations that dry lichens with green algae are able to recover net photosynthesis through rehydration with water vapor, whereas all blue-green lichens tested so-far lack this ability." This study, using critical point drying and SEM to compare the phycobionts of Ramalina maciformis and Peltigera rufescens, indicates that the blue-green phycobionts (Nostoc) do not become rehydrated and turgid without liquid water.]
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  • Green, TGA/ Kilian, E/ Lange, OL 1991: Pseudocyphellaria dissimilis: a desiccation-sensitive, highly shade-adapted lichen from New Zealand. - Oecologia 85: 498-503. [RLL List #  / Rec.# 7007]
    Keywords: DESICCATION/ DROUGHT/ LIGHT/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ SHADE
    Abstract: 8 fig. [This ecologiclly unusual cyanobacterial species is found to have very unusual water and light relations. It is extremely shade tolerant and also less tolerant to drying than even the very desiccation-sensitive aquatic lichens. The study was conducted in the laboratory.]
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  • Green, TGA/ Lange, OL 1991: Ecophysiological adaptations of the lichen genera Pseudocyphellaria and Sticta to south temperate rainforests. - Lichenologist 23(3): 267-282. [RLL List #  / Rec.# 7009]
    Keywords: ADAPTATIONS/ DESICCATION/ LIGHT/ LIGHT SATURATION/ PHOTOSYMBIODEMES/ SHADE/ WATER RELATIONS/ WATER STORAGE
    Abstract: 6 fig. 7 tab. ["These lichens exhibit a great diversity of both form and habitat range. Physiological and morphological adaptation has also been demonstrated. Pseudocyphellaria dissimilis shows changes in thallus water storage capacity with evaporative demand and is also highly shade-adapted. The species has the lowest light saturation and compensation values for photosynthesis yet known for lichens (20 and 1 µmol m-2s-1, PAR, respectively). Unexpectedly it is also highly desiccation-sensitive with some thalli being killed after only 20 h exposure to 15% relative humidity." The physiological differences between the green algal and cyanobacterial sectors of the P. rufovirescens-P. murrayi photosymbiodeme are also investigated.]
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  • Hätscher, I/ Veit, M/ Proksch, P/ Lange, OL/ Zellner, H 1991: Feeding deterrency and growth retarding activity of lichen substances against Spodoptera littoralis. - Planta Medica 57(Suppl. 2): A26. [RLL List # 149 / Rec.# 7199]
    Keywords: EDIBILITY/ FEEDING DETERRENCE/ LEPIDOPTERA
    Abstract: [Both acetone and water extracts from 12 selected lichens were incorporated into an artificial diet for feeding tests with the larvae of this Lepidopteran.]
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  • Lange, OL/ Bruns-Strenge, S 1991: Photosynthetische Primärproduktion der Flechte Cladonia portentosa an einem Dünenstandort auf der Nordseeinsel Baltrum. II. Photosynthesedmodell: Entwicklung, Parametrisierung durch Messungen des CO2-Gaswechsels unter kontrollierten Bedingungen und Test [Photosynthetic primary production of the lichen Cladonia portentosa in a dune habitat at the Island Baltrum in the North Sea. II. A photosynthesis model: development, parametrization based on CO2 exchange measurement in the laboratory, and validation]. - Flora 185: 214-232. [RLL List #  / Rec.# 11015]
    Keywords: CO2 EXCHANGE/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ PRIMARY PRODUCTION
    Abstract: 13 fig. 2 tab. ["Photosynthesis and dark respiration of the lichen Cladonia portentosa was studied under controlled conditions in the laboratory. There was good agreement with respect to the absolute rates of CO2 exchange as well as in response to single factors between the laboratory results and performance of the lichen in the field. The dependencies of CO2-gas exchange on incident photosynthetically active radiation, thallus temperature, and thallus-water content were described with a series of equations. These functions were combined in a general model which simulates net photosynthesis in response to all three environmental factors. The model was validated against observed diurnal courses of CO2 exchange which were obtained in the natural habitat of the lichen. Field performance is reproduced well by the model although deviations may occur in extreme environmental situations.]
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  • Lange, OL/ Meyer, A/ Ullmann, I/ Zellner, H 1991: Mikroklima, Wassergehalt und Photosynthesis von Flechten in der küstennahen Nebelzone der Namib-Wüste: Messungen während der herbstlichen Witterungsperiode [Microclimate conditions, water content and photosynthesis of lichens in the coastal fog zone of the Namib Desert: measurements in the Fall]. - Flora 185(4): 233-266. [RLL List #  / Rec.# 11036]
    Keywords: FOG ZONE/ NAMIB DESERT/ NAMIBIA/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ SOUTH AFRICA/ WATER RELATIONS
    Abstract: 13 fig. 4 tab. [Detailed field studies on photosynthesis and water relations in ten species characteristic of the Namib Desert (Alectoria sp., Caloplaca elegantissima, Heterodermia cf. erinacea, Neofuscelia namaensis, Ramalina lacera, Santessonia hereroensis, Teloschistes capensis, Xanthomaculina convoluta, X. hottentotta, Xanthoparmelia walteri.). "The characteristics of a species, especially its growth form, determine maximal rate of photosynthesis and the ability of the lichen to make use of the available moisture. The multibranched fruticose species (e.g., Teloschistes capensis, Alectoria spec., Ramalina lacera) reach higher rates of net photosynthesis than the more compact foliose lichens (e.g., Xanthomaculina convoluta, X. hottentotta, Xanthoparmelia walteri), both their maximal apparent quantum use efficiency (initial slope of the light response curve) and their maximal photosynthetic rates at light saturation being greater."]
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  • Bruns-Strenge, S/ Lange, OL 1992: Photosynthetische Primärproduktion der Flechte Cladonia portentosa an einem Dünenstandort auf der Nordseeinsel Baltrum. III. Anwendung des Photosynthesemodells zur Simulation von Tagesläufen des CO2-Gaswechsels und zur Abschätzung der Jahresproduktion [Photosynthetic primary production of the lichen Cladonia portentosa in a dune habitat at the Island Baltrum in the North Sea. III. Use of the photosynthesis model to simulate daily courses of CO2 exchange and to calculate the annual production]. - Flora 186: 127-140. [RLL List # 148 / Rec.# 2575]
    Keywords: ANNUAL PRODUCTION/ CO2 EXCHANGE/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ PRIMARY PRODUCTION
    Abstract: 5 fig. 3 tab. ["In the spring, summer and fall, days with rain resulted in the greatest CO2 fixation, followed by days with fog and by days with nocturnal hydration which took place mainly by dew fall. In contrast during winter, the average CO2 uptake on rainy days was much less due to low light intensities, and days with dew fall were associated with the highest CO2 gain. The fall was the season during which estimates of CO2 fixation by the lichen were greatest, however, photosynthetic productivity during spring and in the summer was similar in magnitude. In contrast, carbon gain in the winter was less than half of that predicted for the other seasons. In the annual total, 66% of the net production of the lichen resulted due to moistening by rain, 22% by fog, and 10.4% to nocturnal moistening by dew condensation. The integrated balance of the photosynthetic production of the lichen for a typical year was 27.9 mmol CO2 per g dry weight. This annual carbon gain equals ca. 79% of the carbon content of the thallus. Apparently only a small proportion of this primary production is incorporated into new biomass of the slowly growing lichen. We suggest that excess carbon fixation may be necessary due to substantial leaching of assimilates, especially during moistening by rain. This assimilated carbon may be lost due to the open structure of the lichen thallus."]
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  • Cowan, IR/ Lange, OL/ Green, TGA 1992: Carbon-dioxide exchange in lichens: determination of transport and carboxylation characteristics. - Planta 187(2): 282-294. [RLL List # 148 / Rec.# 3619]
    Keywords: CO2 DIFFUSION/ CO2 EXCHANGE/ GAS EXCHANGE
    Abstract: 8 fig. 6 tab. 9 equations [Laboratory study using one liverwort, Monoclea forsteri, and five lichens, Pseudocyphellaria faveolata, P. colensoi, Sticta fuliginosa, S. latifrons, and Ramalina maciformis.]
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  • Lange, OL/ Kidron, GJ/ Büdel, B/ Meyer, A/ Kilian, E/ Abeliovich, A 1992: Taxonomic composition and photosynthetic characteristics of the 'biological soil crusts' covering sand dunes in the western Negev Desert. - Functional Ecology 6: 519-527. [RLL List # 152 / Rec.# 11027]
    Keywords: CO2 EXCHANGE/ CYANOBACTERIA/ DESERT/ DUNES/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ SOIL CRUSTS
    Abstract: 7 fig. 1 tab. [These crusts are formed by at least one moss, four blue-green algae, and two green algal species. Although the crusts include no lichens, their photosynthetic characteristics are compared to various Negev lichens and lichen soil crusts.]
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  • Lange, OL 1992: Pflanzenleben unter Stress. Flechten als Pioniere der Vegetation an Extremstandorten der Erde. - Rostra Universitatis Wirceburgensis, Würzburg. 59 pp. [RLL List # 148 / Rec.# 11081]
    Keywords: PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ PHYSIOLOGY/ WATER RELATIONS
    Abstract: 37 fig. (including many color photos.) [Brief popular account of lichen ecophysiology.]
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  • Lange, OL 1992: The new "click cuvette" for photosynthesis measurement on thallophytes such as lichens and mosses. - Walz News 2: 7-8. [RLL List # 152 / Rec.# 11082]
    Keywords: CO2 EXCHANGE/ POROMETER/ TECHNIQUES
    Abstract: 2 fig. [Describes a special lichen cuvette developed for the CO2/H2O Porometer in cooperation with the Walz company.]
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  • Tenhunen, JD/ Lange, OL/ Hahn, S/ Siegwolf, R/ Oberbauer, SF 1992: The ecosystem role of poikilohydric tundra plants. - In: Jefferies, RL/Reynolds, JF/Shaver, GR/Svoboda, J (eds.): Arctic Ecosystems in a Changing Climate. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 213-237. [RLL List # 148 / Rec.# 18380]
    Keywords: ARCTIC/ COMMUNITY INTERACTIONS/ MICROCLIMATE/ POIKILOHYDRIC/ TUNDRA/ WATER RELATIONS
    Abstract: 9 fig. 3 tab. [Review of the role of mosses and lichens in the tundra ecosystem.]
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  • Adams, WW, III/ Demmig-Adams, B/ Lange, OL 1993: Carotenoid composition and metabolism in green and blue-green algal lichens in the field. - Oecologia 94(4): 576-584. [RLL List # 153 / Rec.# 110]
    Keywords: BLUE-GREEN ALGAE/ CAROTENOIDS/ METABOLISM/ PHOTOPROTECTION/ ZEAXANTHIN
    Abstract: 7 fig. 2 tab. [Thirty-three species of green algal lichens and five species with blue-green algae were studied and compared to the leaves of higher plants.]
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  • Badger, MR/ Pfanz, H/ Büdel, B/ Heber, U/ Lange, OL 1993: Evidence for the functioning of photosynthetic CO2-concentrating mechanisms in lichens containing green algal and cyanobacterial photobionts. - Planta 191: 57-70. [RLL List # 153 / Rec.# 1373]
    Keywords: CARBONIC ANHYDRASE/ CO2 CONCENTRATING MECHANISM/ CO2 FIXATION/ CYANOBACTERIA/ GREEN ALGAE/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS
    Abstract: 11 fig. 1 tab. [Eleven species with green algal photobionts and six species with cyanobacterial photobionts were investigated. "Using a CO2-gas-exchange system, which allowed resolution of fast transients, evidence was obtained for the existence of an inorganic carbon pool which accumulated in the light and was released in the dark."]
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  • Green, TGA/ Büdel, B/ Heber, U/ Meyer, A/ Zellner, H/ Lange, OL 1993: Differences in photosynthetic performance between cyanobacterial and green algal components of lichen photosymbiodemes measured in the field. - New Phytologist 125: 723-731. [RLL List # 157 / Rec.# 7004]
    Keywords: CYANOBACTERIA/ GREEN ALGAE/ PHOTOSYMBIODEMES/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ PSEUDOCYPHELLARIA/ WATER BALANCE/ WATER RELATIONS
    Abstract: 5 fig. ["The photosynthesis of the components of two Pseudocyphellaria photosymbiodemes were studied in the natural forest environment in New Zealand. It was found that the green algal component had a large photosynthetic advantage when thallus water contents were low and the thalli were in equilibrium with atmospheric humidity. The cyanobacterial components were at an advantage when thallus water contents were very high."]
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  • Hahn, SC/ Tenhunen, JD/ Popp, PW/ Meyer, A/ Lange, OL 1993: Upland tundra in the foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska: diurnal CO2 exchange patterns of characteristic lichen species. - Flora 188: 125-143. [RLL List # 152 / Rec.# 7313]
    Keywords: CO2 EXCHANGE/ DRYING PERIOD/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ WATER RELATIONS
    Abstract: 9 fig. 6 tab. [Detailed field study of CO2 exchange relative to water content and microclimate conditions in seven lichen species: Masonhalea richardsonii, Cetraria cucullata, Stereocaulon alpinum, Thamnolia vermicularis, Dactylina arctica, Peltigera aphthosa, P. malacea. "Even short periods of favourable hydration were used by lichens for positive net photosynthesis (NP). There was no indication of adverse consequences of "resaturation respiration." Even after a dry period of 3 days, sudden rehydration resulted in carbon gain without delay. For short periods of time, the combinations of water content, temperature and light imposed on the lichens enables high rate of NP. Individual species differed greatly in their maximal NP rate, which correlated with chlorophyll and nitrogen content. At favourable times in the field, observed NP rates approached the maximum capacity found in the laboratory experiments at natural ambient CO2. Often with sufficient hydration, carbon gain was limited by light. CO2 exchange became negative even during daylight hours due to the effects of fog and clouds with light below compensation levels. Reduced but still positive rates of NP were observed with snow and with frozen lichens."]
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  • Lange, OL/ Büdel, B/ Heber, U/ Meyer, A/ Zellner, H/ Green, TGA 1993: Temperate rainforest lichens in New Zealand: high thallus water content can severely limit photosynthetic CO2 exchange. - Oecologia 95: 303-313. [RLL List # 154 / Rec.# 11006]
    Keywords: CO2 EXCHANGE/ DIFFUSION/ DIFFUSIVE RESISTANCE/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ RAIN FORESTS/ WATER CONTENT/ WATER RELATIONS
    Abstract: 8 fig. 1 tab. ["CO2 exchange rate in relation to thallus water content (WC, % of dry weight) was determined for 22 species of lichens, mainly members of the genera Pseudocyphellaria and Sticta, from a temperate rainforest, Urewera National Park, New Zealand. All data were obtained in the field, either using a standard technique in which the lichens were initially wetted (soaked or sprayed, then shaken) and allowed to slowly dry, or from periodic measurements on samples that were continuously exposed in their natural habitat. A wide range of WC was found, with species varying from 357 to 3360% for maximal WC in the field, and from 86 to 1300% for optimal WC for photosynthesis."]
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  • Lange, OL/ Büdel, B/ Meyer, A/ Kilian, E 1993: Further evidence that activation of net photosynthesis by dry cyanobacterial lichens requires liquid water. - Lichenologist 25(2): 175-189. [RLL List # 152 / Rec.# 11007]
    Keywords: CYANOBACTERIA/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ WATER RELATIONS
    Abstract: 5 fig. 1 tab. ["In contrast to green algal lichens, cyanobacterial species of different families, growth forms and habitats proved to be unable to attain positive net CO2 assimilation when the dry thalli were treated with air of high relative humidity; they needed liquid water for the reactivation of their photosynthetic apparatus. Identical behaviour is shown by all of the 47 lichen species with cyanobacterial photobionts, from six different genera, studied so far."]
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  • Büdel, B/ Lange, OL 1994: The role of cortical and epinecral layers in the lichen genus Peltula. - Cryptogamic Botany 4: 262-269. [RLL List # 157 / Rec.# 1335]
    Keywords: ADAPTATIONS/ CORTEX/ EPINECRAL LAYER/ HABITAT SELECTION/ LIGHT TRANSMISSION/ PELTULA
    Abstract: 16 fig. 1 tab. [An investigation of cortical structure in four species of Peltula, and of light transmission rates to the cyanobiont layer. New: P. farinosa Büdel sp. nov.]
    [Edit/Delete] [Upload PDF/URL] [ET: 2564]

  • Giez, I/ Lange, OL/ Proksch, P 1994: Growth retarding activity of lichen substances against the polyphagous herbivourous insect Spodoptera littoralis. - Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 22(2): 113-120. [RLL List # 157 / Rec.# 6569]
    Keywords: ANTIHERBIVORE PROTECTION/ GRAZING/ HERBIVORE/ INSECTS/ INVERTEBRATES
    Abstract: 1 fig. 3 tab. ["Fourteen frequently occurring lichen substances including two depsides, seven depsidones and four pulvinic acid derivatives as well as an anthraquinone, were studied for their influence on growth and development of the polyphagous herbivore Spodoptera littoralis."]
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  • Green, TGA/ Lange, OL/ Cowan, IR 1994: Ecophysiology of lichen photosynthesis: the role of water status and thallus diffusion resistances. - Cryptogamic Botany 4: 166-178. [RLL List # 157 / Rec.# 7008]
    Keywords: CO2 COMPENSATION/ CO2 CONCENTRATING MECHANISM/ CO2 DIFFUSION/ ECOPHYSIOLOGY/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ WATER BALANCE/ WATER CONTENT
    Abstract: 12 fig. 2 tab. ["Lichens are poikilohydric plants and, as such, their thallus water content (WC) tends to equilibrate with the atmospheric humidity. An analysis is made of the typical response of lichen photosynthesis to thallus WC which is a three (subjectively delimitated) phase curve. At low WC the metabolism is thought to be limited by the low water potential and net photosynthesis (PN) is almost linearly related to WC. Green algal lichens show the special ability to achieve positive PN by equilibration only with atmospheric humidity. Factors that limit maximal PN at optimal WC have yet to be satisfactorily described. At high WC many lichens show a depression in PN and the evidence is summarised to show that this is a result of increased thallus CO2 diffusion resistances."]
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  • Green, TGA/ Lange, OL 1994: Photosynthesis in poikilohydric plants: a comparison of lichens and bryophytes. - In: Schulze, E-D/Caldwell, MC (eds.): Ecophysiology of Photosynthesis. Ecological Studies, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 319-341. [RLL List # 157 / Rec.# 7010]
    Keywords: PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS RATES/ POIKILOHYDRIC/ PRODUCTIVITY/ SHADE/ WATER CONTENT/ WATER STORAGE/ WATER TRANSPORT
    Abstract: 3 fig. 5 tab. [Review paper.]
    [Edit/Delete] [Upload PDF/URL] [ET: 2558]

  • Lange, OL/ Büdel, B/ Zellner, H/ Zotz, G/ Meyer, A 1994: Field Measurements of water relations and CO2 exchange of the tropical, cyanobacterial basidiolichen Dictyonema glabratum in a Panamanian rainforest. - Botanica Acta 107: 279-290. [RLL List # 157 / Rec.# 11008]
    Keywords: BASIDIOLICHENS/ CO2 CONCENTRATING MECHANISM/ DICTYONEMA/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ PRODUCTIVITY/ RAIN FORESTS/ WATER BALANCE/ WATER CONTENT
    Abstract: 10 fig. 1 tab. ["Diel time courses of microclimate, hydration, and CO2 exchange of the basidiolichen Dictyonema glabratum and its responses to experimentally changed conditions were measured for 14 days in a clearing of a premontane, tropical rainforest (Panama). Net photosynthesis (NP) was adapted to high temperatures and there was no depression of CO2 uptake at the highest thallus hydration. The presence of a CO2 concentrating mechanism was demonstrated. Decreased NP occurred after desiccation, and apparent photon yield of CO2 fixation was also sensitive to water loss. Natural NP was controlled by the interplay of thallus hydration and radiation. Regular, daily desiccation and dense cloud cover suppressed production. On average, 72% of the diurnal photosynthetic gain was lost during the night, and there were days with negative carbon balance. Nevertheless, total carbon gain of the lichen was extremely high. A tentative estimation suggests that annual carbon gain amounts to 228 % of initial thallus carbon content. Because of their strong effect on net production, increased nocturnal temperatures as given at lower elevation, would lead to a negative carbon balance. This might explain the lack of abundance of this and other macrolichens in warmer, lowland forests."]
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  • Lange, OL/ Meyer, A/ Büdel, B 1994: Net photosynthesis activation of a desiccated cyanobacterium without liquid water in high air humidity alone. Experiments with Microcoleus sociatus isolated from a desert soil crust. - Functional Ecology 8: 52-57. [RLL List # 157 / Rec.# 11035]
    Keywords: CYANOBACTERIA/ HYDRATION/ MICROCOLEUS/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ SOIL CRUSTS/ WATER ABSORPTION/ WATER BALANCE/ WATER VAPOR
    Abstract: 2 fig. 1 tab. [This species, as it occurs in its natural summer state in desert soil crusts, proved unable to reactivate photosynthetic metabolism solely by hydration in equilibrium with high air humidity. However, desiccated populations in lab culture attained turgor and were able to photosynthesize in equilibrium with a relative air humidity as low as 96%.]
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  • Lange, OL/ Meyer, A/ Zellner, H/ Heber, U 1994: Photosynthesis and water relations of lichen soil crusts: field measurements in the coastal fog zone of the Namib Desert. - Functional Ecology 8: 253-264. [RLL List # 157 / Rec.# 11037]
    Keywords: CO2 EXCHANGE/ COMPENSATION POINT/ NAMIB DESERT/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS RATES/ RESPIRATION/ SOIL CRUSTS/ WATER RELATIONS
    Abstract: 7 fig. 1 tab. [Photosynthetic and respiratory CO2 exchange rates were studied in three species: Acarospora cf. schleicheri, Caloplaca volkii, and Lecidella crystallina. "Area-related, maximal, daily net photosynthetic carbon gain of the three species under natural conditions was 158-290 mg C m-2 day-1. A very rough, first estimate of the annual carbon balance of the soil-crust lichens (photosynthetic gain minus respiratory losses) was 16 g C m-2 year-1."]
    [Edit/Delete] [Upload PDF/URL] [ET: 2563]

  • Leisner, JMR/ Bilger, W/ Czygan, F-C/ Lange, OL 1994: Light exposure and the composition of lipophilous carotenoids in cyanobacterial lichens. - Journal of Plant Physiology 143(4/5): 514-519. [RLL List # 156 / Rec.# 11304]
    Keywords: CANTHAXANTHIN/ CAROTENOIDS/ CHLOROPHYLL/ CYANOBACTERIA/ CYANOLICHENS/ HPLC/ LIGHT INTENSITY/ LIGHT SCREENING/ TLC/ ZEAXANTHIN
    Abstract: 4 fig. 3 tab. ["Lipophilous carotenoids together with chlorophyll a were extracted in acetone from 1) a variety of cyanobacterial lichens stemming from habitats with strongly different light exposure, ranging from the Judean Desert, Israel, to a shaded forest floor in Germany, 2) Peltigera praetextata collected from a deciduous forest in the vicinity of Würzburg at bimonthly intervals during an entire year, and 3) Peltigera species which in a short term experiment (five days) had been exposed to altered light conditions with respect to those they had grown under. Pigment determination by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed no clear trend in the concentrations of zeaxanthin (and echinone) under different incident light intensities. In contrast, canthaxanthin contents increased and the concentrations of chlorophyll a and ß-carotene decreased with enhanced light exposure of the lichens. This was observed for all three types of investigation and indicates that the ratio of canthaxanthin to ß-carotene in a cyanobacterial lichen is strongly influenced by the light environment it has recently grown in."]
    [Edit/Delete] [Upload PDF/URL] [ET: 2560]

  • Tarnawski, MG/ Green, TGA/ Büdel, B/ Meyer, A/ Zellner, H/ Lange, OL 1994: Diel changes of atmospheric CO2 concentration within, and above, cryptogam stands in a New Zealand temperate rainforest. - New Zealand Journal of Botany 32(3): 329-336. [RLL List # 157 / Rec.# 18265]
    Keywords: CO2 CONCENTRATION/ ECOLOGY/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ PHYLLOPLANE/ RAIN FORESTS/ RESPIRATION
    Abstract: 4 fig. 2 tab. ["In this temperate rainforest community, the environment within the mosses and lichens is significantly richer in CO2 than the atmosphere both within and outside the forest. Moss phylloplane CO2 levels averaged 50%, and lichen thalli CO2 levels 10% higher, than in the air outside the forest."]
    [Edit/Delete] [Upload PDF/URL] [ET: 3331]

  • Büdel, B/ Green, TGA/ Meyer, A/ Zellner, H/ Lange, OL 1995: Rainfall as a cause of mechanical damage to Pseudocyphellaria rufovirescens in a New Zealand temperate rainforest. - Lichenologist 27(4): 317-319. [RLL List # 160 / Rec.# 1329]
    Keywords: CORTEX/ MECHANICAL DAMAGE/ PSEUDOCYPHELLARIA/ RAINFALL/ WATER RELATIONS
    Abstract: 2 fig. [Peeling of the upper cortex induced by heavy rainfall is reported.]
    [Edit/Delete] [Upload PDF/URL] [ET: 2740]

  • Green, TGA/ Meyer, A/ Buedel, B/ Zellner, H/ Lange, OL 1995: Diel patterns of CO2-exchange for six lichens from a temperate rain forest in New Zealand. - Symbiosis 18(3): 251-273. [RLL List # 160 / Rec.# 7011]
    Keywords: CO2 EXCHANGE/ EXPOSURE/ GAS EXCHANGE/ LIGHT/ SHADE/ SUN FORMS/ WATER CONTENT
    Abstract: 8 fig. 4 tab. ["The gas exchange of six temperate rain forest lichens was measured in the field in the Urewera National Park, New Zealand." Comparison of the effects of thallus water content and light on gas exchange in shade species, sun species, and marginal species.]
    [Edit/Delete] [Upload PDF/URL] [ET: 2932]

  • Hesbacher, S/ Giez, I/ Embacher, G/ Fiedler, K/ Max, W/ Trawöger, A/ Türk, R/ Lange, OL/ Proksch, P 1995: Sequestration of lichen compounds by lichen-feeding members of the Arctiidae (Lepidoptera). - Journal of Chemical Ecology 21(12): 2079-2089. [RLL List # 162 / Rec.# 8489]
    Keywords: ANTIFEEDANT ACTIVITY/ ANTIHERBIVORE PROTECTION/ ARCTIIDAE/ CHEMICAL DEFENSE/ CLADONIA/ FEEDING PREFERENCES/ FUMARPROTOCETRARIC/ HPLC/ INSECT LARVAE/ INSECTS/ LEPIDOPTERA/ MOTHS/ SEQUESTRATION
    Abstract: 2 fig. 2 tab. [Analysis of wild caught moths (eight genera, 16 species) for lichen substances, and preliminary feeding experiments with larvae of one species.]
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  • Lange, OL/ Reichenberger, H/ Meyer, A 1995: High thallus water content and photosynthetic CO2 exchange of lichens. Laboratory experiments with soil crust species from local xerothermic steppe formations in Franconia, Germany. - In: Daniëls, FJA/Schulz, M/Peine, J (eds.): Flechten Follmann. Contributions to lichenology in Honour of Gerhard Follmann. Geobotanical and Phytotaxonomical Study Group, Botanical Institute, University of Cologne, Cologne, pp. 139-153. [RLL List # 161 / Rec.# 11042]
    Keywords: PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ SOIL CRUSTS/ THALLUS HYDRATION/ WATER CONTENT/ WATER RELATIONS
    Abstract: 5 fig. [Study of net photosynthesis and its dependence on thallus water content in seven lichens. "The relationships found between NP and WC could be divided into four response types based on the degree of depression of NP at maximal WC. Type A lichens (Cladonia convoluta, Diploschistes muscorum) showed no or almost no depression, type B (Squamarina lentigera) only a little at the highest thallus water contents. Type C (Collema tenax, Toninia sedifolia) had a large depression which became steadily greater as water content increased; type D lichens Cladonia pocillum, Fulgensia fulgens) behaved similarly, but the response curve had an inflection so that NP became low but almost constant."]
    [Edit/Delete] [Upload PDF/URL] [ET: 3059]


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