370116 Papaver microcarpum DC.
- DC., Syst. Nat. 2: 71 (1821). Described from Kamtchatka (the Russian Far East). Type in G-DC. - Papaver nudicaule subsp. microcarpum (DC.) Elkan, Monogr. Papav.: 17 (1839). - Papaver alpinum var. microcarpum (DC.) Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1: 87 (1841).
Geography: Asian (N) - Asian Beringian.
Notes: Papaver microcarpum is reported to be a northern and northeastern Asian polymorphic diploid species (Tolmachev 1975a; Petrovsky 1999) with three parapatric races, all first described as species: P. microcarpum, P. czekanowskyi, and P. ochotense. They share several morphological features, e.g., dense tussocks with scapes ascending, hairs on all parts whitish to pale brown and distinctly dentate, blades deeply dissected, flowers comparatively large and open, petals fading brick red, stamens numerous (>40), and fruits small and often subglobose with whitish bristles. Materials of subsp. microcarpum and subsp. czekanowskyi were included in the morphological analysis (Solstad 2009) and showed only a few morphological differences, mainly in leaf dissection.
The geographical ranges proposed for the subspecies are not consistent. Tolmachev (1975a) and Petrovsky (1999) mapped subsp. microcarpum from two well separated areas: one in West and East Chukotka and another in Kamtchatka. The non-arctic subsp. ochotense (Tolm.) Tolm. was mapped as filling the gap between the Chukotkan and Kamtchatkan parts of the range of subsp. microcarpum, i.e., in South Chukotka, the Koryak mountains, the Penzhina area, and in northern Kamtchatka. Subspecies czekanowskyi was mapped from Olenek River, Kharaulakh, and the Verkhoyansk Mountains in Yakutia in northeastern Siberia east to West Chukotka, where its range overlaps with the northern part of subsp. microcarpum. A plant published as P. omolonense Khokhr. from the nearby Magadan area belongs in the same relationship and may be synonymous with one of the races. It was not mentioned by Bezdeleva (1987).
Sequence data (ITS; Solstad unpubl.) suggest that subsp. microcarpum (material from Kamtchatka) and subsp. czekanowskyi (material fron northern Yakutia) are more different genetically than previously assumed. Papaver microcarpum s. lat. may consist of three (or more) separate species.
In addition to the diploids subsp. microcarpum and subsp. czekanowskyi, a tetraploid with petals fading yellow occurs in at least Karaginsky Island in northern Kamtchatka, i.e., within the range of subsp. ochotense, which Rändel (1974) stated to have petals fading yellow. We have not found reports of chromosome numbers for subsp. ochotense. Bezdeleva (1987) assigned this plant to P. pulvinatum, a rather different species not otherwise reported from the Kamtchatka region. The tetraploids cluster in AFLP patterns close to P. microcarpum. Further studies are needed before we can decide with genetic support whether this tetraploid is subsp. ochotense or an independent species.