570112 Viola biflora L.
- L., Sp. Pl.: 936 (1753). Lectotype (LINN): Europe. Herb. Linn. 1052.16 (Qaiser and Omer 1985: 20).
(1) 18 (3x). - Sokolovskaya and Strelkova (1962).
(2) 34-35 (ca. 6x). - Caucasus. - Sokolovskaya and Strelkova (1948b).
(3) 48 (8x). - Canada (British Columbia). - Taylor and Mulligan (1968, for the local subsp. carlottae Calder & R.L. Taylor).
Geography: European - Asian - amphi-Pacific/Beringian.
Notes: Taylor and Mulligan (1968) commented that "the members of ... section Dischidium Ging. present some interesting systematic problems that await research". This is still the case more than 40 years later. This group is polymorphic, especially in the Pacific regions. Hultén and Fries (1986) accepted five species: Viola szetschwanensis W. Becker in China (and Myanmar?), V. crassa Makino in Japan, southern Sakhalin, the Kuriles, and southern Kamtchatka, V. avatschensis W. Becker & Hultén overlapping with V. crassa in southern Kamtchatka and distributed north to South Chukotka, V. orbicularis Greyer in western (Cordilleran) North America, and V. biflora L. with an isolated subsp. caucasica Rupr. in the Caucasus and a widespread subsp. biflora in several separate areas throughout Eurasia to eastern Siberia and eastern China, and in addition in East Chukotka, Alaska, the Yukon Territory, and with three 'dots' mapped (but not commented on) in southwestern U.S.A. Tzvelev (PAF proposal, comments) accepted three races to reach the Arctic. We accept two of these as subsp. biflora and subsp. avatschensis. The third, V. biflora subsp. microceras (Rupr.) Tzvelev (V. microceras Rupr.), is disputed, see Excluded taxa.