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Spribille, T./ Resl, P./ Ahti, T./ Pérez-Ortega, S./ Tønsberg, T./ Mayrhofer, H./ Lumbsch, H.T. 2014: Molecular systematics of the wood-inhabiting, lichen-forming genus Xylographa (Baeomycetales, Ostropomycetidae) with eight new species. - Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 37(1): 1-87. [RLL List # 268 / Rec.# 37264]
Abstract: The ascomycete genus Xylographa includes some of the most abundant species of wood-inhabiting lichenized fungi in boreal and temperate regions. It has never been monographed and little is known of its species diversity and evolutionary relationships. Based on a morphological and secondary metabolite-based assessment of material from North and South America, Europe and Asia, we generated a three-locus phylogeny based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer, 28S nuclear rDNA and mitochondrial small subunit rDNA. We analyzed the data within the context of putatively related genera in the order Baeomycetales. Xylographa is a strongly supported monophyletic group closely related to Lithographa and Ptychographa, as well as rock-dwelling and lichenicolous species of Rimularia s.lat. The evolution of linearized ascomata in Xylographa appears to have enabled ascomata to grow laterally, and patterns of lateral growth are diagnostic. We recognize twenty species in Xylographa and provide a thorough revision of nomenclature. The following eight species are new: Xylographa bjoerkii T. Sprib., X. constricta T. Sprib., X. erratica T. Sprib., X. lagoi T. Sprib. & Pérez-Ortega, X. schofieldii T. Sprib., X. septentrionalis T. Sprib., X. stenospora T. Sprib. & Resl and X. vermicularis T. Sprib. The combinations Lambiella insularis (Nyl.) T. Sprib. and Xylographa carneopallida (Räsänen) T. Sprib. are newly proposed. Xylographa constricta from southern South America represents the first known case of secondary de-lichenization in the Baeomycetales. Xylographa parallela s.str. is confirmed as bipolar on the basis of sequenced collections from both southern Chile and the northern Hemisphere.
Notes: New: Xylographa bjoerkii T. Sprib. (from Canada and U.S.A.), Xylographa carneopallida (Räsänen) T. Sprib. (≡ Xylographa rubescens var. carneopallida Räsänen), Xylographa constricta T. Sprib. (from Chile), Xylographa erratica T. Sprib. (from Canada, Finland, Russia and U.S.A), Xylographa lagoi T. Sprib. & Pérez-Ortega (from Spain), Xylographa schofieldii T. Sprib. (from Canada and U.S.A.), Xylographa septentrionalis T. Sprib. (from Canada and U.S.A.), Xylographa stenospora T. Sprib. & Resl (from Canada and U.S.A.), Xylographa vermicularis T. Sprib. (from Japan, Russia and U.S.A.). Lectotypified: Lichen parallelus Ach., Lecidea trunciseda Th. Fr., Stictis linearis Cooke & Ellis, Xylographa arctica Vain., Xylographa arctica var. subhians Vain., Xylographa disseminata Willey, Xylographa hians Tuck., Xylographa laricicola Nyl., Xylographa opegraphella Nyl., Xylographa parallela var. difformis Vain., Xylographa parallela var. pallens Nyl., Xylographa parallela var. sessitana Bagl., Xylographa rubescens Räsänen. Neotypified: Xylographa rubescens var. degelii Räsänen. Xylographa pruinodisca B.D. Ryan & T.H. Nash placed in synonymy with X. difformis, X. crassithallia B.D. Ryan & T.H. Nash placed in synonymy with X. difformis with question.