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Lawrey, JD 1980: Sexual and asexual reproductive patterns in Parmotrema (Parmeliaceae) that correlate with latitude. - The Bryologist 83: 344-350. [RLL List # 108-58 / Rec.# 11196]
Abstract: 2 tables. ["Most tropical species were found to produce either sexual or asexual reproductive structures, but not both. Temperate species were found to invest in mixed reproductive strategies. Mixed strategies may be selected for, not only because they maintain genetic variability, but also because they may faciliate lichenization in habitats in which suitable algal-host diversity is low. Correlations were also observed between spore size, production of asexual structures and production of perforate apothecia in fertile species of Parmotrema that suggest a conservation of reproductive tissue in species investing in large spores or asexual structures."]

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