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Culberson, WL/ Culberson, CF 1973: Parallel evolution in the lichen-forming fungi. - Science 180: 196-198. [RLL List # 85 / Rec.# 3795]
Abstract: 1 fig. 1 tab. ["The asexual lichen-forming fungus Parmelia hypotropa has two common chemical races that differ sharply in biogeography and niche characteristics and appear to have been derived by morphologic parallelism from chemically identical races of the closely related P. perforata, which is sexual. Among the lichen fungi many chemically variable asexual morphs, which conventional taxonomies treat as species, are probably polyphyletic like P. hypotropa."]

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